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Receiving damage

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There are a number of steps involved in deciding whether damage sources such as attacks, spells and secondary damages hits or not and how much damage is done to the target.

Order of operations

The list below displays the order of operations when an attacker attempts to damage a defender:

  1. Initial damage
    Damage sources have a base damage that can be increased by various stats. Stats are only applied once per calculation.
    1. Flat damage
      • Local modifiers apply to base damage on the relevant source, for example most modifiers on weapons.
      • Added damage to attacks or spells from equipment and support gems.
    2. Damage conversion
      • Added as modifiers adds a percentage of one damage type as another damage type, for example Gain #% of Physical Damage as Extra Cold Damage during effect or You and nearby allies add #% of your Physical Damage as Cold Damage.[1]
      • Converted to modifiers changes one type of damage into another, for example #% of Cold Damage Converted to Fire Damage.[1][2]
    3. Global modifiers
      • All increased and reduced modifiers are additive.
      • All more and less modifiers are multiplicative.

      Converted damage can take benefit of bonuses for the damage type it was before and what it converted into.

    4. Critical strike roll
    5. Hits can be rolled as a critical strike which multiplies the damage by 150% by default.

  2. Preventing the hit:
    1. Evasion of attacks.[3]
    2. Dodge and Spell dodge.[3]
  3. Blocking the hit:
    1. Block and Spell block.[3]
  4. Damage shift:
    Incoming, damaging hits can be shifted to another damage type.[4] It is usually done by utilizing an item which offers the #% of X Damage taken as Y modifier, for example:
    It is important to note that this is not damage conversion,[4] as shifted part of damage does not retain its original damage property so it won't get mitigated either twice or by the more favorable method. For example, if some of the incoming damage is shifted to or from physical, the after-shift value is used in the armour calculation.
  5. Damage mitigation:
    • Damage can be avoided, for example with GlitterdiscGlitterdisc
      Burnished Spiked Shield
      Quality: +20%
      Chance to Block: 26%
      Evasion: (148-161)
      Energy Shield: (79-111)
      Requires Level 27, 37 Dex, 37 Int3% reduced Movement Speed (Hidden)
      4% chance to Dodge Attack Hits
      (120-140)% increased Evasion and Energy Shield
      +(30-50) to maximum Life
      +(20-30) to maximum Energy Shield
      10% increased Rarity of Items found
      25% chance to Avoid Fire Damage when Hit
      You always Ignite while Burning
      Izaro's insistence on using lava
      resulted in some surprising material discoveries.
      . Avoiding damage stops the damage of a hit. It still counts as a hit, even if it only is 0 damage.[5]
    • Elemental and chaos damage is mitigated by its respective resistance.
    • Physical damage is mitigated by the sum of all #% additional Physical Damage Reduction modifiers, up to its 90% cap.[6] These modifiers can be calculated from:
      • Armour, which grants damage reduction relative to how much Armour you have compared to the initial physical damage hit.
      • Other sources of flat physical damage reduction, such as:
        • Endurance charges
        • Basalt FlaskBasalt FlaskLasts 4.50 Seconds
          Consumes 40 of 60 Charges on use
          15% additional Physical Damage Reduction
          20% of Melee Physical Damage taken reflected to Attacker
          Requires Level 40Right click to drink. Can only hold charges while in belt. Refills as you kill monsters.
        • Soul of Steel
        • Unwavering Faith
        • Summon Chaos GolemSummon Chaos GolemChaos, Minion, Spell, Golem
          Mana Cost: (30-54)
          Can store 1 use(s)
          Cooldown Time: 6.00 sec
          Cast Time: 1.00 sec
          Requires Level 34Summons a Chaos Golem that grants you Physical Damage Reduction. The Chaos Golem can use a damage over time Chaos aura and a cascade of Chaos spikes in addition to its melee attack.Per 1% Quality:
          1% increased Minion Maximum Life
          1% increased Minion Damage
          Can Summon up to 1 Golem at a time
          Golems grant (3-4)% additional Physical Damage Reduction
          (30-68)% increased Minion Maximum Life
          (0-10)% increased Character Size
          Place into an item socket of the right colour to gain this skill. Right click to remove from a socket.
          Summon Chaos Golem skill icon.png
  6. Damage taken:
    After damage mitigation, modifiers to damage taken are applied. Flat amounts are applied first, then the sum of all increases/reductions and lastly with more/less multipliers applied separately:[7]
    Order Modifier Examples
    1 ±# X Damage taken from Y AshrendAshrend
    Buckskin Tunic
    Quality: +20%
    Evasion: (352-387)
    Requires Level 17, 53 Dex3% reduced Movement Speed (Hidden)Socketed Gems are Supported by Level 10 Added Fire Damage
    (80-100)% increased Evasion Rating
    +(30-50) to maximum Life
    +(40-50)% to Fire Resistance
    Cannot be Ignited
    (10-15)% increased Physical Damage with Ranged Weapons
    -(7-5) Physical Damage taken from Attacks
    The blasted oak stands forever.

    Plate Vest
    Quality: +20%
    Armour: 22
    3% reduced Movement Speed (Hidden)Adds 2 to 4 Physical Damage to Attacks
    +(12-20) to maximum Life
    -2 Physical Damage taken from Attacks
    40% of Melee Physical Damage taken reflected to Attacker
    It is safer to be feared than to be loved.

    Onyx Amulet
    Requires Level 20+(10-16) to all Attributes+(80-100) to all Attributes
    -4 Physical Damage taken from Attacks
    Mindless rage will shake the world,
    Cunning lies will bend it.
    Reckless haste will break the world,
    And into darkness send it.
    2 #% increased/reduced X Damage taken Fortify
    VulnerabilityVulnerabilityCurse, Spell, AoE, Duration
    Radius: 22
    Mana Cost: (24-50)
    Cast Time: 0.50 sec
    Requires Level 24Curse all targets in an area, causing them to take increased physical damage and further increased physical damage over time. Attacks against cursed enemies have a chance to inflict bleeding and maim.Per 1% Quality:
    Cursed Enemies have 0.5% chance to Bleed when Hit by Attacks
    Base duration is (9-10.9) seconds
    Cursed enemies take (30-39)% increased Physical Damage
    Cursed Enemies have 20% chance to Bleed when Hit by Attacks
    Cursed Enemies have 20% chance to be Maimed for 4 seconds when Hit by Attacks
    Cursed enemies take 30% increased Physical Damage from Damage over time
    +(0-10) to radius
    Place into an item socket of the right colour to gain this skill. Right click to remove from a socket.
    Vulnerability skill icon.png

    Ezomyte Burgonet
    Quality: +20%
    Armour: (761-830)
    Requires Level 60, 138 StrAdds 40 to 60 Physical Damage to Attacks
    +(20-25) to all Attributes
    +(100-125)% to Melee Critical Strike Multiplier
    (100-120)% increased Armour
    (40-50)% increased Physical Damage taken
    When you have slain all of your enemies,
    what is left to fear?

    Fragile BloomFragile Bloom
    Crimson Jewel
    2% of Life Regenerated per second
    10% increased Damage taken
    The first green shoots of Spring are the most resilient,
    and the most vulnerable.
    Place into an allocated Jewel Socket on the Passive Skill Tree. Right click to remove from the Socket.

    Hyaon's FuryHyaon's Fury
    Legion Sword
    One Handed Sword
    Quality: +20%
    Physical Damage: 63.6117.6
    Elemental Damage: 1–(550-650)
    Critical Strike Chance: 5.00%
    Attacks per Second: (1.28-1.32)
    Weapon Range: 9
    Requires Level 62, 122 Str, 104 Dex40% increased Global Accuracy RatingAdds 1 to (550-650) Lightning Damage
    (7-10)% increased Attack Speed
    1% increased Damage taken per Frenzy Charge
    12% increased Lightning Damage per Frenzy Charge
    +20 Life gained on Kill per Frenzy Charge
    Plays Wolf Call sound on Kill (Hidden)
    "Hyaon the 'Red Wolf'
    Howling mad
    Cloaked in blood
    A banner to his legion
    A terror to his foes."
    - Garivaldi, Chronicler to the Empire

    Oro's SacrificeOro's Sacrifice
    Infernal Sword
    Two Hand Sword
    Quality: +20%
    Elemental Damage: (425-475)–(550-600)
    Critical Strike Chance: 5.00%
    Attacks per Second: (1.49-1.55)
    Weapon Range: 11
    Requires Level 67, 113 Str, 113 Dex30% increased Global Accuracy RatingNo Physical Damage
    Adds (425-475) to (550-600) Fire Damage
    (10-15)% increased Attack Speed
    20% chance to Ignite
    10% increased Physical Damage taken
    10% increased Fire Damage taken
    Culling Strike against Burning Enemies
    Gain a Frenzy Charge if an Attack Ignites an Enemy
    Give yourself to the flames and your name
    will burn in the minds of men forever.

    Sibyl's LamentSibyl's Lament
    Coral Ring
    Requires Level 45+(20-30) to maximum Life(20-30)% increased Elemental Damage with Attack Skills
    Adds (8-15) to (20-28) Fire Damage to Attacks
    (20-10)% reduced Rarity of Items found
    Left ring slot: 40% reduced Reflected Elemental Damage taken
    Right ring slot: 40% reduced Reflected Physical Damage taken
    The portrait reflected his pain,
    a pain that she could never see.

    Worthy Foe
    3 #% more/less X Damage taken Arctic ArmourArctic ArmourSpell, Duration, Cold
    Mana Reserved: 25%
    Can Store 1 Use(s)
    Cooldown Time: 0.50 sec
    Cast Time: 0.50 sec
    Requires Level 16Conjures an icy barrier that chills enemies when they hit you. You drop chilled ground while moving, and take less Fire and Physical damage while stationary.Per 1% Quality:
    1% increased Skill Effect Duration
    Chill Enemy for 0.5 seconds when Hit, slowing them by 30%
    (8-13)% less Physical Damage taken when Hit
    (8-12)% less Fire Damage taken when Hit
    Base duration is (2.5-4.4) seconds
    Place into an item socket of the right colour to gain this skill. Right click to remove from a socket.
    Arctic Armour skill icon.png

    Exquisite Leather
    Quality: +20%
    Evasion: (1548-1689)
    Requires Level 62, 170 Dex3% reduced Movement Speed (Hidden)(100-120)% increased Evasion Rating
    +(60-80) to maximum Life
    +30% to Fire Resistance
    20% less Damage taken if you have not been Hit Recently
    50% increased Evasion Rating if you have been Hit Recently
    Do not hide your flaws, your cracks,
    mend them, and display them proudly.
    For it is these that set us apart.

    Storm Barrier SupportStorm Barrier SupportLightning, Support, Channelling
    Icon: b
    Mana Multiplier: 110%
    Requires Level 4Supports any channelling skill, protecting you from damage while you channel it. Cannot support Minions that channel skills.Per 1% Quality:
    1% chance to Gain a Power Charge when hit while Channelling Supported Skills
    0% less Lightning Damage taken from Hits while Channelling Supported Skills
    0% less Physical Damage taken from Hits while Channelling Supported Skills
    (50-69)% chance to Gain a Power Charge when hit while Channelling Supported Skills
    (8-12)% less Lightning Damage taken from Hits while Channelling Supported Skills
    (8-13)% less Physical Damage taken from Hits while Channelling Supported Skills
    This is a Support Gem. It does not grant a bonus to your character, but to skills in sockets connected to it. Place into an item socket connected to a socket containing the Active Skill Gem you wish to augment. Right click to remove from a socket.
  7. Taking the final damage:
    1. Non-chaos damage damages energy shield protecting life until it's depleted, by default.
    2. For Mind over Matter users, #% of the remaining damage is removed from mana. Mind over Matter only applies if the hit is damaging life.

    Chaos damage always bypasses energy shield. This applies regardless if energy shield is protecting life or mana.

Damage over Time generally follows the same principle, however this damage source doesn't hit which means that it ignores evasion, damage shifts, armour and other mechanics that requires a hit. Other sources of physical damage reduction will apply as usual though. As for damage taken step, modifiers that generally affect Damage taken or Damage taken from Damage over Time will apply, but Damage taken from Hits won't.


If a damage roll is unlucky, the damage calculation will be rolled twice and the lower value will be chosen. Rolls to crit/evade/dodge/block are unchanged and only happen once.[8] This can effectively reduce damage by up to one third if the damage has a very low minimum, with the benefit decreasing rapidly: Damage with minimum at half the maximum will only be reduced by one ninth. Currently unlucky is only found on the unique ring Lori's LanternLori's Lantern
Prismatic Ring
Requires Level 30+(8-10)% to all Elemental Resistances+10% to all Elemental Resistances
(6-8)% increased Movement Speed when on Low Life
31% increased Light Radius
+(20-25)% to Chaos Resistance when on Low Life
Enemies are Unlucky when Damaging you while you are on Low Life
By its light, Lori led her young charges to safety
and bound up their wounds.
Her sword arm was iron, yet her heart gentle
and proof against hate.
and the "of Miring" map suffix.

External links

  • EHP Calculator - Calculates the effective HP value based on which defenses are used. Make sure to check the source for errors and out of date values.


  1. 1.0 1.1 Mark_GGG (February 22, 2015). "Elemental To Physical Conversion". Path of Exile Forums. Retrieved March 18, 2016.
  2. Mark_GGG (November 27, 2013). "Avatar of Fire ~ Elemental Damage Nodes". Path of Exile Forums. Retrieved March 2, 2016.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 Daniel_GGG (January 2, 2014). "reflect mechanics VS evasion,blocking,acrobatics". Official Path of Exile Forums. Retrieved November 21, 2015.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Mark_GGG (September 26, 2013). "Specifics on Lightning Coil mechanics?". Official Path of Exile Forums. Retrieved November 21, 2015.
  5. Mark_GGG (June 22, 2016). "Mechanical Questions Thread". Path of Exile Forums. Retrieved June 22, 2016.
  6. Malice (November 14, 2011). "Mechanics thread". Official Path of Exile Forums. Retrieved November 22, 2015.
  7. Mark_GGG (May 15, 2014). "defensive mechanisms activate in which order?". Official Path of Exile Forums. Retrieved May 15, 2014.
  8. Mark_GGG (May 13, 2013 4:01 AM). "p/c new ring lori's lantern". Path of Exile Forum. Retrieved September 22, 2013.