There is a twitch promotion allowing you to get Purple Footprints Effect inventory icon.pngPurple Footprints EffectPurple Footprints EffectBoots Modifier
Stack Size: 20
Adds purple footprints to a pair of boots.Right click this item then left click some boots to apply it.
Purple Footprints Effect inventory icon.png
, Purple Weapon Effect inventory icon.pngPurple Weapon EffectPurple Weapon EffectWeapon Effect
Stack Size: 20
Adds a Purple effect to a weapon.Right click this item then left click a weapon to apply it.
Purple Weapon Effect inventory icon.png
and Purple Portal Effect inventory icon.pngPurple Portal EffectPurple Portal EffectPortal ModificationThis character's portals use a purple effect.Right click this to set or remove your Portal effect.Purple Portal Effect inventory icon.png if you have twitch prime.

Receiving damage

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There are a number of steps involved in deciding whether damage sources such as attacks, spells and secondary damages hits or not and how much damage is done to the target.

Order of operations

The list below displays the order of operations for giving or receiving damage:

  1. Initial damage:
    Damage sources have a base damage that can be increased by various stats. Stats are generally only applied once per calculation, however in some cases it is possible to benefit from stats twice.
    1. Flat damage
      • Local modifiers apply to base damage on the relevant source, for example most modifiers on weapons.
      • Added damage to attacks or spells from equipment and support gems.
    2. Damage conversion
      • Added as modifiers adds a percentage of one damage type as another damage type, for example Gain #% of Physical Damage as Extra Cold Damage during effect or You and nearby allies add #% of your Physical Damage as Cold Damage.[1]
      • Converted to modifiers changes one type of damage into another, for example #% of Cold Damage Converted to Fire Damage.[1][2]
    3. Global modifiers
      • All increased and reduced modifiers are additive.
      • All more and less modifiers are multiplicative.

      Converted damage can take benefit of bonuses for the damage type it was before and what it converted into.

    4. Critical strike roll
    5. Hits can be rolled as a critical strike which multiplies the damage by 150% by default.

  2. Preventing the hit:
    1. Evasion of attacks.[3]
    2. Dodge and Spell dodge.[3]
  3. Blocking the hit:
    1. Block and Spell block.[3]
  4. Damage shift:
    Incoming, damaging hits can be shifted to another damage type.[4] It is usually done by utilizing an item which offers the #% of X Damage taken as Y modifier, for example:
    It is important to note that this is not damage conversion,[4] as shifted part of damage does not retain its original damage property so it won't get mitigated either twice or by the more favorable method. For example, if some of the incoming damage is shifted to or from physical, the after-shift value is used in the armour calculation.
  5. Damage mitigation:
    • Damage can be avoided, for example with Glitterdisc inventory icon.pngGlitterdiscGlitterdisc
      Burnished Spiked Shield
      Quality: +20%
      Chance to Block: 26%
      Evasion: (129 to 140)
      Energy Shield: (86 to 119)
      Requires Level 27, 37 Dex, 37 Int3% reduced Movement Speed (Hidden)
      Reflects (10-23) Physical Damage to Melee Attackers
      (120-140)% increased Evasion and Energy Shield
      +(30-50) to maximum Life
      +(20-30) to maximum Energy Shield
      10% increased Rarity of Items found
      25% chance to Avoid Fire Damage when Hit
      Izaro's insistence on using lava
      resulted in some surprising material discoveries.
      Glitterdisc inventory icon.png
      . Avoiding damage stops the damage of a hit. It still counts as a hit, even if it only is 0 damage.[5]
    • Elemental and chaos damage is mitigated by its respective resistance.
    • Physical damage is mitigated by the sum of all #% additional Physical Damage Reduction modifiers, up to its 90% cap.[6] These modifiers can be calculated from:
      • Armour, which grants damage reduction relative to how much Armour you have compared to the initial physical damage hit.
      • Other sources of flat physical damage reduction, such as:
        • Endurance charges
        • Basalt Flask inventory icon.pngBasalt FlaskBasalt FlaskLasts 5.00 Seconds
          Consumes 40 of 60 Charges on use
          20% additional Physical Damage Reduction
          20% of Melee Physical Damage taken reflected to Attacker
          Requires Level 40Right click to drink. Can only hold charges while in belt. Refills as you kill monsters.
          Basalt Flask inventory icon.png
        • Soul of Steel
        • Unwavering Faith
        • Summon Chaos Golem inventory icon.pngSummon Chaos GolemSummon Chaos GolemChaos, Minion, Spell, Golem
          Mana Cost: (30 to 54)
          Can store 1 use(s)
          Cooldown Time: 6.00 sec
          Cast Time: 1.00 sec
          Requires Level 34Summons a Chaos Golem that grants you Physical Damage Reduction. The Chaos Golem can use a damage over time Chaos aura and a cascade of Chaos spikes in addition to its melee attack.Per 1% Quality:
          1% increased Minion Maximum Life
          1% increased Minion Damage
          Can Summon up to 1 Golem at a time
          Golems grant (3-4)% additional Physical Damage Reduction
          (30-68)% increased Minion Maximum Life
          (0-10)% increased Character Size
          Place into an item socket of the right colour to gain this skill. Right click to remove from a socket.
          Summon Chaos Golem skill icon.png
          Summon Chaos Golem inventory icon.png
  6. Damage taken:
    After damage mitigation, modifiers to damage taken are applied. Flat amounts are applied first, then the sum of all increases/reductions and lastly with more/less multipliers applied separately:[7]
    Order Modifier Examples
    1 ±# X Damage taken from Y Ashrend inventory icon.pngAshrendAshrend
    Buckskin Tunic
    Quality: +20%
    Evasion: (252 to 277)
    Requires Level 17, 53 Dex3% reduced Movement Speed (Hidden)Socketed Gems are Supported by level 10 Added Fire Damage
    (80-100)% increased Evasion Rating
    +(30-50) to maximum Life
    +(40-50)% to Fire Resistance
    Cannot be Ignited
    (10-15)% increased Physical Damage with Ranged Weapons
    -(7-5) Physical Damage taken from Attacks
    The blasted oak stands forever.
    Ashrend inventory icon.png

    Bramblejack inventory icon.pngBramblejackBramblejack
    Plate Vest
    Quality: +20%
    Armour: 16
    Requires 12 Str3% reduced Movement Speed (Hidden)Adds 2 to 4 Physical Damage to Attacks
    +(12-20) to maximum Life
    -2 Physical Damage taken from Attacks
    40% of Melee Physical Damage taken reflected to Attacker
    It is safer to be feared than to be loved.
    Bramblejack inventory icon.png

    Astramentis inventory icon.pngAstramentisAstramentis
    Onyx Amulet
    Requires Level 20+(10-16) to all Attributes+(80-100) to all Attributes
    -4 Physical Damage taken from Attacks
    Mindless rage will shake the world,
    Cunning lies will bend it.
    Reckless haste will break the world,
    And into darkness send it.
    Astramentis inventory icon.png
    2 #% increased/reduced X Damage taken Fortify
    Vulnerability inventory icon.pngVulnerabilityVulnerabilityCurse, Spell, AoE, Duration
    Radius: 22
    Mana Cost: (24 to 50)
    Cast Time: 0.50 sec
    Requires Level 24Curses all targets in an area, making them take increased physical damage and degeneration.Per 1% Quality:
    Cursed enemies take 0.5% increased Physical damage
    Base duration is (9-10.9) seconds
    Cursed enemies take (20-29)% increased Physical damage
    Cursed enemies take 33% increased damage from Damage Over Time effects
    (0-76)% increased Area of Effect
    Place into an item socket of the right colour to gain this skill. Right click to remove from a socket.
    Vulnerability skill icon.png
    Vulnerability inventory icon.png

    Abyssus inventory icon.pngAbyssusAbyssus
    Ezomyte Burgonet
    Quality: +20%
    Armour: (662 to 722)
    Requires Level 60, 138 StrAdds 40 to 60 Physical Damage to Attacks
    +(20-25) to all Attributes
    +(150-225)% to Melee Critical Strike Multiplier
    (100-120)% increased Armour
    (40-50)% increased Physical Damage taken
    When you have slain all of your enemies,
    what is left to fear?
    Abyssus inventory icon.png

    Fragile Bloom inventory icon.pngFragile BloomFragile Bloom
    Crimson Jewel
    2% of Life Regenerated per second
    10% increased Damage taken
    The first green shoots of Spring are the most resilient,
    and the most vulnerable.
    Place into an allocated Jewel Socket on the Passive Skill Tree. Right click to remove from the Socket.
    Fragile Bloom inventory icon.png

    Sibyl's Lament inventory icon.pngSibyl's LamentSibyl's Lament
    Coral Ring
    Requires Level 45+(20-30) to maximum Life(20-30)% increased Elemental Damage with Weapons
    Adds (8-15) to (20-28) Fire Damage to Attacks
    (20-10)% reduced Rarity of Items found
    Left ring slot: 40% reduced Reflected Elemental Damage taken
    Right ring slot: 40% reduced Reflected Physical Damage taken
    The portrait reflected his pain,
    a pain that she could never see.
    Sibyl's Lament inventory icon.png

    3 #% more/less X Damage taken Arctic Armour inventory icon.pngArctic ArmourArctic ArmourSpell, Duration, Cold
    Mana Reserved: 25%
    Can store 1 use(s)
    Cooldown Time: 0.50 sec
    Cast Time: 0.50 sec
    Requires Level 16Summons an icy barrier that chills enemies when they hit you. You drop chilled ground while moving, and take less Fire and Physical damage while stationary.Per 1% Quality:
    1% increased Duration
    Chill Enemy for 0.5 seconds when Hit
    (8-13)% less Physical Damage taken when Hit
    (8-12)% less Fire Damage taken when Hit
    Base duration is (2.5-4.4) seconds
    Place into an item socket of the right colour to gain this skill. Right click to remove from a socket.
    Arctic Armour skill icon.png
    Arctic Armour inventory icon.png

    Kintsugi inventory icon.pngKintsugiKintsugi
    Exquisite Leather
    Quality: +20%
    Evasion: (1104 to 1204)
    Requires Level 62, 170 Dex3% reduced Movement Speed (Hidden)(100-120)% increased Evasion Rating
    +(60-80) to maximum Life
    +30% to Fire Resistance
    20% less Damage taken if you have not been Hit Recently
    50% increased Evasion Rating if you have been Hit Recently
    Do not hide your flaws, your cracks,
    mend them, and display them proudly.
    For it is these that set us apart.
    Kintsugi inventory icon.png
  7. Taking the final damage:
    1. Non-chaos damage damages energy shield protecting life until it's depleted, by default.
    2. For Mind over Matter users, #% of the remaining damage is removed from mana. Mind over Matter only applies if the hit is damaging life.

    Chaos damage always bypasses energy shield. This applies regardless if energy shield is protecting life or mana.

Damage over Time generally follows the same principle, however this damage source doesn't hit which means that it ignores evasion, damage shifts, armour and other mechanics that requires a hit. Other sources of physical damage reduction will apply as usual though. As for damage taken step, modifiers that generally affect Damage taken or Damage taken from Damage over Time will apply, but Damage taken from Hits won't.


If a damage roll is unlucky, the damage calculation will be rolled twice and the lower value will be chosen. Rolls to crit/evade/dodge/block are unchanged and only happen once.[8] This can effectively reduce damage by up to one third if the damage has a very low minimum, with the benefit decreasing rapidly: Damage with minimum at half the maximum will only be reduced by one ninth. Currently unlucky is only found on the unique ring Lori's Lantern inventory icon.pngLori's LanternLori's Lantern
Prismatic Ring
Requires Level 30+(8-10)% to all Elemental Resistances+10% to all Elemental Resistances
(6-8)% increased Movement Speed when on Low Life
31% increased Light Radius
+(20-25)% Chaos Resistance when on Low Life
While on Low Life, Enemies are Unlucky when Damaging you
By its light, Lori led her young charges to safety
and bound up their wounds.
Her sword arm was iron, yet her heart gentle
and proof against hate.
Lori's Lantern inventory icon.png
and the "of Miring" map suffix.

External links

  • EHP Calculator - Calculates the effective HP value based on which defenses are used. Make sure to check the source for errors and out of date values.


  1. 1.0 1.1 Mark_GGG (February 22, 2015). "Elemental To Physical Conversion". Path of Exile Forums. Retrieved March 18, 2016.
  2. Mark_GGG (November 27, 2013). "Avatar of Fire ~ Elemental Damage Nodes". Path of Exile Forums. Retrieved March 2, 2016.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 Daniel_GGG (January 2, 2014). "reflect mechanics VS evasion,blocking,acrobatics". Official Path of Exile Forums. Retrieved November 21, 2015.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Mark_GGG (September 26, 2013). "Specifics on Lightning Coil mechanics?". Official Path of Exile Forums. Retrieved November 21, 2015.
  5. Mark_GGG (June 22, 2016). "Mechanical Questions Thread". Path of Exile Forums. Retrieved June 22, 2016.
  6. Malice (November 14, 2011). "Mechanics thread". Official Path of Exile Forums. Retrieved November 22, 2015.
  7. Mark_GGG (May 15, 2014). "defensive mechanisms activate in which order?". Official Path of Exile Forums. Retrieved May 15, 2014.
  8. Mark_GGG (May 13, 2013 4:01 AM). "p/c new ring lori's lantern". Path of Exile Forum. Retrieved September 22, 2013.