Leech

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Leech recovers an amount of life, mana or energy shield over time, relative to the damage inflicted on an enemy. Leech cares about the damage taken by the enemy, not the amount of life removed.[1][2]

Mechanics

In The Awakening expansion the leech mechanics were changed with the goal to make it harder to leech against a single enemy. Earlier the leech recovered at a constant rate, this method do not take into account how many enemies that were hit by the skill. The leech mechanic was therefore changed so that a new leech instance was created per hit. These instances can stack meaning a single hit against multiple targets will grant multiple instances, as will multiple hits against a single target.[3]


The total amount of life or mana leeched without Vaal Pact can be described as

HP(t) = r * t

where r is the leech recovery rate and t is the time. The leech recovery rate, r, varies depending on how many enemies have been hit and how many times the enemies have been hit. [4]

Recovery rate

Values of the Base Leech Rates[3]
Symbol Value Description
q 2 %
2 %
Base Life Leech Rate
Base Mana Leech Rate
qmax 20%
20%
Base Maximum Life Leech Rate
Base Maximum Mana Leech Rate

The leech recovery rate r is given by

r = p * n * q * (1 + m)

where p is the character's maximum life (for life leech) or mana (for mana leech), n is the number of active leech instances, q is the Base Leech Rate and m is the sum of all the #% increased (or reduced) Life/Mana Leeched per second modifiers.

There is a upper limit of the leech recovery rate which is defined as

rmax = p * (qmax + mmax)

where qmax is the Base Maximum Leech Rate and mmax is the sum of all the #% of maximum Life/Mana per second to maximum Life/Mana Leech rate modifiers.

If r > rmax those values will be substituted with rmax. The total amount of active leech instances allowed, ntot, to not exceed the maximum recovery rate is

ntot = (qmax + mmax) / (q * (1 + m))
Derivation of ntot
Find the amount of instances that gives the maximum leech recovery rate:
r = rmax
p * n * q * (1 + m) = p * (qmax + mmax)

solving for n yields the total amount of active leech instances allowed

ntot = n = (qmax + mmax) / (q * (1 + m))

Leech duration

The leech recovery duration for each instance in seconds is given by [5]

tdur = d * l / (p * q)

where d is the damage inflicted on the enemy, l is the total amount of leech. The leech duration is independent on other leech instances. [5] Note that the leeched damage is always rounded down to nearest integer which can be noticeable for skills that do low amounts of damage quickly.

To be able to sustain the maximum recovery rate, rmax, against a single target the total amount of instances allowed needs to be active at all times, ntot. The attack time between each hit, tatt, needs to be

tatt ≤ tdur / ntot

Modifiers

Modifiers that alters the leech recovery rate increases the value of Life/Mana you're gaining per second for each leech effect. However, it does not affect the duration, tdur, of the leech effects, meaning that more total life/mana will be gained from each leech instance as a result.[3][5] This also implies that by increasing the Life/Mana Leeched per seconds gives a larger total of life leeched compared to Vaal Pact.

There are only a couple of ways for these factors to be altered, besides the passive tree:[3][6]

  • The of Smothering modifier for maps slows life and mana leech recovery rate by 50%.
  • For life leech by a skill supported by the Life Leech gem.
  • Vorici's master modifier also offers #% increased Life Leeched per second.

Examples

When using skills such as Dual Strike linked with Melee Splash several enemies can be hit at once. The leech rate will vary considerably depending on how many enemies are hit. The character used in the following examples have the following stats:

p = 5000 maximum life.
d = 1000 damage taken by the enemy.
l = 1 % life leech.
1 enemy hit
n = 1 leech instance/enemy.
m = 0% increased Life Leeched per second.
mmax = 0% of maximum Life per second to maximum Life Leech rate.

The recovery rate is:

r = n * p * q * (1 + m) = 1 * 5000 * 0.02 * (1 + 0) = 100 HP/sec

Make sure that the recovery rate doesn't exceed the maximum recovery rate which is

rmax = p * (qmax + mmax) = 5000 * (0.2 + 0) = 1000 HP/sec

The limit has not been exceeded, meaning that no substitution is necessary.

The time it takes to recover the total amount of life leeched is

tdur = d * l / (p * q) = 1000 * 0.01 / (5000 * 0.02) = 0.1 seconds

which gives the total life leeched

HP(tdur) = r * tdur = 100 * 0.1 = 10 Life
5 enemies hit at once
n = 5 leech instances/enemies.
m = 0% increased Life Leeched per second.
mmax = 0% of maximum Life per second to maximum Life Leech rate.

The recovery rate is:

r = n * p * q * (1 + m) = 5 * 5000 * 0.02 * (1 + 0) = 500 HP/sec

Make sure that the recovery rate doesn't exceed the maximum recovery rate which is

rmax = p * (qmax + mmax) = 5000 * (0.2 + 0) = 1000 HP/sec

The limit has not been exceeded, meaning that no substitution is necessary.

The time it takes to recover the total amount of life leeched is

tdur = d * l / (p * q) = 1000 * 0.01 / (5000 * 0.02) = 0.1 seconds

which gives the total life leeched

HP(tdur) = r * tdur = 500 * 0.1 = 50 Life
11 enemies hit at once
n = 11 leech instances/enemies.
m = 0% increased Life Leeched per second.
mmax = 0% of maximum Life per second to maximum Life Leech rate.

The recovery rate is:

r = n * p * q * (1 + m) = 11 * 5000 * 0.02 * (1 + 0) = 1100 HP/sec

Make sure that the recovery rate doesn't exceed the maximum recovery rate which is

rmax = p * (qmax + mmax) = 5000 * (0.2 + 0) = 1000 HP/sec

The limit has been exceeded, therefore the recovery rate needs to be changed to r = 1000 HP/sec.

The time it takes to recover the total amount of life leeched is

tdur = d * l / (p * q) = 1000 * 0.01 / (5000 * 0.2) = 0.1 seconds

which gives the total life leeched

HP(tdur) = r * tdur = 1000 * 0.1 = 100 Life

Marauder dual strike
 
For example, let's take a marauder with dual strike skill.
p= 5577 life total
L= 3.2% base phys leech (gear and passives)
m= 93% Inc. leech per second
Mmax+13% of max life per second to max life leech rate 
d= 1400-2500 single attack physical damage (I used MINIMUM main hand damage)
n= number of enemies (1 for this example)
r= recovery rate
Rmax= cap for recovery rate
Tdur= Leech duration
APS= attacks per second

(Variables left in for ease of use)

Recovery rate
r215.27= p5577 * n1 * q0.02 * (1 + m0.93)

Recovery rate max cap
Rmax 1187.90 = p5577 * (Qmax0.2 + Mmax 0.013)

Leech duration
MINIMUM Tdur 0.40 = d1400 * L0.032 / (p5577 * 0.02)
MAXIMUM Tdur 0.72 = d2500 * L0.032 / (p5577 * 0.02)

Total Leech Figures
86.46 leech per hit per per enemy MINIMUM = r215.27 * Tdur0.40
154.4 leech per hit per per enemy MAXIMUM= r215.27 * Tdur0.72 

911.33 to 1627.376 leeched per second per enemy= APS10.54 x 86.464 and then x 154.4 for min/max leech
4556.65 to 8136.88 leeched per 5 enemies per second
9113.3 to 16273.76 leeched per 10 enemies per second

Types of Leech

There's several types of leech that specializes on certain types of skills. Some leech types only works for attacks, others only works with elemental damage or physical damage. If there is specialization it will be defined in the modifier.

Generally the leech modifiers follow this template:

#% of X Y Damage Z Leeched as Life/Mana

Where X can be:

  • Physical/Fire/Cold/Lightning/Elemental/Chaos

Y can be:

  • Attack/Spell

and Z can be:

Note that if X, Y or Z are not specified it means that it applies to all those types.

Examples

  • Life Leech and Mana Leech has the mod #% of Damage Leeched as Life/Mana implying it works for all types of skills that hits a target.
  • Warlord's Mark also has the mod #% of Damage Leeched as Life/Mana, granted the enemy already is cursed.
  • The notable passive Soul Raker grants the mod #% of Physical Damage Dealt with Claws Leeched as Life specifying it works for only Physical damage dealt by a Claw, this implies that this passive only works for Attacks because Spells are separate from the weapon.
  • The notable passive Lust for Carnage grants the mod #% of Physical Attack Damage Leeched as Life specifying it applies to Physical Attacks. All types of weapons can make use of this notable, however not Spells.

Passive skills

There are passive skills that grant passive leech or bonuses to leech.

Physical Attack Damage Leeched as Life

These passive skills that grant passive life leech when dealing physical damage with a weapon.

Name Bonuses
Life Leech
  • 0.4% of Physical Attack Damage Leeched as Life
Life Leech and Life Leeched per Second
  • 0.2% of Physical Attack Damage Leeched as Life
  • 10% increased Life Leeched per second
Life Leech and Maximum Life Leech Rate
  • 0.2% of Physical Attack Damage Leeched as Life
  • +3% of maximum Life per second to maximum Life Leech rate
Axe Damage and Life Leech
  • 10% increased Physical Damage with Axes
  • 0.2% of Physical Attack Damage Leeched as Life
Sword Damage and Life Leech
  • 8% increased Physical Damage with Swords
  • 0.2% of Physical Attack Damage Leeched as Life
Splitting Strikes
  • 26% increased Physical Damage with Axes
  • 6% increased Attack Speed with Axes
  • 0.2% of Physical Attack Damage Leeched as Life
  • 10% increased Life Leeched per second
Bloody Bludgeon
  • 18% increased Physical Damage with Maces
  • 6% increased Attack Speed with Maces
  • 0.4% of Physical Attack Damage Leeched as Life
Blood Drinker
  • 8% increased maximum Life
  • 0.4% of Physical Attack Damage Leeched as Life
Soul Raker
  • 18% increased Physical Damage with Claws
  • 1.2% of Physical Damage Dealt with Claws Leeched as Life
  • 0.4% of Physical Damage Dealt with Claws Leeched as Mana
Lust for Carnage
  • 0.4% of Physical Attack Damage Leeched as Life
  • +2 Life gained for each Enemy hit by your Attacks
  • 15% increased Life Leeched per second
Hematophagy
  • 0.4% of Physical Attack Damage Leeched as Life
  • +5% of maximum Life per second to maximum Life Leech rate
  • 20% increased Life Leeched per second
  • 15% increased Damage while Leeching
Vitality Void
  • 0.8% of Attack Damage Leeched as Life
  • +5% of maximum Life per second to maximum Life Leech rate
  • 20% increased Life Leeched per second

Increased Life Leeched per second

These passive skills increase the rate of life gained while leeching.

Name Bonuses
Life Leech and Life Leeched per Second
  • 0.2% of Physical Attack Damage Leeched as Life
  • 10% increased Life Leeched per second
Life Gain on Hit and Life Leeched per Second
  • +2 Life gained for each Enemy hit by your Attacks
  • 10% increased Life Leeched per second
Life Leech and Life Gain on Hit
  • +2 Life gained for each Enemy hit by your Attacks
  • 20% increased Life Leeched per second
Axe Damage and Life Leech Rate
  • 8% increased Physical Damage with Axes
  • 8% increased Life Leeched per second
Claw Damage and Life Leech Rate
  • 8% increased Physical Damage with Swords
  • 10% increased Life Leeched per second
Mace Damage and Life Leech Rate
  • 10% increased Physical Damage with Maces
  • 8% increased Life Leeched per second
Splitting Strikes
  • 26% increased Physical Damage with Axes
  • 6% increased Attack Speed with Axes
  • 0.2% of Physical Attack Damage Leeched as Life
  • 10% increased Life Leeched per second
Claws of the Pride
  • 15% increased Physical Damage with Claws
  • 8% increased Attack Speed with Claws
  • 15% increased Life Leeched per second
  • 15% increased Mana Leeched per second
Blade of Cunning
  • 22% increased Physical Damage with Swords
  • 8% increased Attack Speed with Swords
  • 12% increased Life Leeched per second
Lust for Carnage
  • 0.4% of Physical Attack Damage Leeched as Life
  • +2 Life gained for each Enemy hit by your Attacks
  • 15% increased Life Leeched per second
Hematophagy
  • 0.4% of Physical Attack Damage Leeched as Life
  • +5% of maximum Life per second to maximum Life Leech rate
  • 20% increased Life Leeched per second
  • 15% increased Damage while Leeching
Vitality Void
  • 0.8% of Attack Damage Leeched as Life
  • +5% of maximum Life per second to maximum Life Leech rate
  • 20% increased Life Leeched per second

Increase to Maximum Life Leech rate

These passive skills increase the maximum life leech rate.

Name Bonuses
Life Leech and Maximum Life Leech Rate
  • 0.2% of Physical Attack Damage Leeched as Life
  • +3% of maximum Life per second to maximum Life Leech rate
Hematophagy
  • 0.4% of Physical Attack Damage Leeched as Life
  • +5% of maximum Life per second to maximum Life Leech rate
  • 20% increased Life Leeched per second
  • 15% increased Damage while Leeching
Vitality Void
  • 0.8% of Attack Damage Leeched as Life
  • +5% of maximum Life per second to maximum Life Leech rate
  • 20% increased Life Leeched per second

Minion Life Leech

These passive skills grant life leech for minions.

Name Bonuses
Minion Life Leech
  • Minions Leech 0.6% of Damage as Life
Minion Damage and Life Leech
  • Minions deal 10% increased Damage
  • Minions Leech 0.2% of Damage as Life

Miscellaneous

These keystone passive change the way Life Leech works, but do not directly enhance Life Leech. These effects do not apply to Mana Leech.

The Vaal Pact Keystone will allow life leech to apply immediately at the cost of losing life regeneration. Ghost Reaver applies life leech to energy shield instead of life.

Name Bonuses
Vaal Pact
  • Life Leech applies instantly
  • Life Regeneration has no effect
Ghost Reaver
  • Life Leech applies to Energy Shield instead of Life

Physical Attack Damage Leeched as Mana

These passive skills that grant passive mana leech when dealing physical damage with a weapon.

Name Bonuses
Mana Leech
  • 0.4% of Physical Attack Damage Leeched as Mana
Mana Leech and Maximum Mana Leech Rate
    • 0.2% of Physical Attack Damage Leeched as Mana
    • +3% of maximum Mana per second to maximum Mana Leech rate
    • 0.2% of Physical Attack Damage Leeched as Mana
    • +3% of maximum Mana per second to maximum Mana Leech rate
    • +5 Mana Gained on Kill
Mana Leech and Mana Leeched per Second
    • 0.2% of Physical Attack Damage Leeched as Mana
    • 10% increased Mana Leeched per second
    • 0.2% of Physical Attack Damage Leeched as Mana
    • +5 Mana Gained on Kill
    • 10% increased Mana Leeched per second
Mind Drinker
  • +15 to maximum Mana
  • 16% increased maximum Mana
  • 0.4% of Physical Attack Damage Leeched as Mana
Essence Sap
  • 0.4% of Physical Attack Damage Leeched as Mana
  • +5% of maximum Mana per second to maximum Mana Leech rate
  • 15% increased Mana Leeched per second
Spirit Void
  • 0.8% of Physical Attack Damage Leeched as Mana
  • +5% of maximum Mana per second to maximum Mana Leech rate
  • 20% increased Mana Leeched per second
Soul Raker
  • 18% increased Physical Damage with Claws
  • 1.2% of Physical Damage Dealt with Claws Leeched as Life
  • 0.4% of Physical Damage Dealt with Claws Leeched as Mana

Increased Mana Leeched per second

These passive skills increase the rate of mana gained while leeching.

Name Bonuses
Mana Leech and Mana Leeched per Second
    • 0.2% of Physical Attack Damage Leeched as Mana
    • 10% increased Mana Leeched per second
    • 0.2% of Physical Attack Damage Leeched as Mana
    • +5 Mana Gained on Kill
    • 10% increased Mana Leeched per second
Essence Sap
  • 0.4% of Physical Attack Damage Leeched as Mana
  • +5% of maximum Mana per second to maximum Mana Leech rate
  • 15% increased Mana Leeched per second
Spirit Void
  • 0.8% of Physical Attack Damage Leeched as Mana
  • +5% of maximum Mana per second to maximum Mana Leech rate
  • 20% increased Mana Leeched per second
Claws of the Pride
  • 15% increased Physical Damage with Claws
  • 8% increased Attack Speed with Claws
  • 15% increased Life Leeched per second
  • 15% increased Mana Leeched per second

Increase to Maximum Mana Leech rate

These passive skills increase the maximum mana leech rate.

Name Bonuses
Mana Leech and Maximum Mana Leech Rate
    • 0.2% of Physical Attack Damage Leeched as Mana
    • +3% of maximum Mana per second to maximum Mana Leech rate
    • 0.2% of Physical Attack Damage Leeched as Mana
    • +3% of maximum Mana per second to maximum Mana Leech rate
    • +5 Mana Gained on Kill
Essence Sap
  • 0.4% of Physical Attack Damage Leeched as Mana
  • +5% of maximum Mana per second to maximum Mana Leech rate
  • 15% increased Mana Leeched per second
Spirit Void
  • 0.8% of Physical Attack Damage Leeched as Mana
  • +5% of maximum Mana per second to maximum Mana Leech rate
  • 20% increased Mana Leeched per second

Immunity to leech

A player can become immune to being life leeched from by enemies through allocating the Bloodless notable passive skill.

Name Bonuses
Bloodless
  • 8% increased maximum Life
  • Enemies Cannot Leech Life From You

Immunity can also be achieved by equipping certain unique items.

NameModifiers
Sin Trek
+(20 to 30) to Dexterity
+(20 to 30) to Intelligence
(80 to 100)% increased Evasion Rating
+(70 to 100) to maximum Energy Shield
30% increased Movement Speed
Enemies Cannot Leech Life From You
Mindspiral
(10 to 15)% increased Cold Damage
(10 to 15)% increased Lightning Damage
+(100 to 150) to maximum Mana
Enemies Cannot Leech Mana From You
(5 to 10)% of Damage taken Gained as Mana when Hit
Cannot Leech Mana

Cannot Leech

Certain unique items prevent the user from leeching life and/or mana.

NameModifiers
Infractem
(30 to 50)% increased Critical Strike Chance(90 to 100)% increased Physical Damage
Adds (25–36 to 35–45) Physical Damage
+(20 to 30) to Dexterity
+(200 to 250) to Accuracy Rating
Arrows always Pierce
10% increased Movement Speed
Cannot Leech
Mindspiral
(10 to 15)% increased Cold Damage
(10 to 15)% increased Lightning Damage
+(100 to 150) to maximum Mana
Enemies Cannot Leech Mana From You
(5 to 10)% of Damage taken Gained as Mana when Hit
Cannot Leech Mana
Deidbell
+(20 to 30) to Strength
+(20 to 30) to Dexterity
+(200 to 300) to Armour
20% increased Melee Damage
Cannot Leech when on Low Life

References

  1. GGG_Mark (August 6, 2013). "Evasion and Damage Reflection questions". Path of Exile forum. Retrieved November 17, 2015.
  2. GGG_Mark (July 1, 2013). "Explosive Arrow". Path of Exile forum. Retrieved November 17, 2015.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 GGG_Neon (May 18, 2015). "Upcoming changes to Leech Thread". Path of Exile Forum. Retrieved July 20, 2015.
  4. GGG_Mark (June 20, 2015). "Vitality Void: Leech Cluster Thread". Path of Exile subreddit. Retrieved July 20, 2015.
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 GGG_Mark (October 1, 2015). "Life leech (wiki)". Path of Exile forum. Retrieved October 12, 2015.
  6. Mark_GGG (March 4, 2014). "Leech: GGG clarify please!". Official Path of Exile Forums. Retrieved March 6, 2014.